not synonymous with the equals method. Average : 563.07
* @param amount is required, can be positive or negative. Java BigDecimal class is used to deal with financial data. * Multiply this Money by an non-integral factor (having a decimal point). long datatype is rather suitable for this case. *might have a sparsely populated array it wants summed up. BigDecimal is for arbitrary-precision fixed-point numbers; you can use these for accurate monetary calculations. The number 1,000.00 is the number one thousand. It performs the operations of java.lang.Math class and it is used to fetch precision, round, unit in the last place (ULP), engineering notation values etc. Declaration. * The {@link #eq(Money)} method, on the other hand, is not
Below Java code explains the concept of accuracy in calculation. This makes it ideal for representing currency or any precise numbers. * 123 (thousands)-3
*
*
Return true only if 'this' amount is less than
*/, // Currency.getInstance("USD").getDefaultFractionDigits(), /**
*/, /** */, /**
The output shows a difference between them. But there is one problem with these primitive types float and double that these types should never be used for precise value, such as currency. Many a times its required to format currency in java, especially an amount into a currency format based on user’s locale in case the application is being used globally. This means that while we can still use longfor storing cents, we need to multiply/divide using decimal p… * MismatchedCurrencyException if the currencies don't match. * @param currencyIfEmpty is used only when moneys is empty; that way, this
Here is the BigDecimal … * Greater than. If you search for “BigDecimal” in that code, you’ll see that I convert from a Scala BigDecimal type to a Java BigDecimal in the insert method, using the bigDecimal method. Table of Contents [ hide] 1 Java BigDecimal Representing money: use BigDecimal, int, or long (BigDecimal is the recommended default) the int and long forms represent pennies (or the equivalent, of course) BigDecimal is a little more inconvenient to use, but has built-in rounding modes *
Return true only if the amounts are equal. *
The scale of the returned Money is equal to the scale of
* If the collection is empty, then a zero value is returned. * 10.gt(1.23) => true
It has methods for most common arithmetic operations and its rounding behaviour can be precisely controlled. Example :
*
Return true only if 'this' amount is
* Maintainers must change this value if and only if the new version
BigDecimal is preferred while dealing with high-precision arithmetic or situations that require more granular control over rounding off calculations. The following code shows how to money type based on BigDecimal. *
Note that scale and rounding are two separate issues. * NumberScale
*
if (amount.lt(hundred)) {
* example of dollars. * of this class is not compatible with old versions. Why BigDecimal is needed. */, /**
Hi All, We decide add support PostgreSQL database (now supporting only Oracle database) to our product. *
* Less than or equal to. *
*/, /**
The java.math.BigDecimal.multiply(BigDecimal multiplicand, MathContext mc) returns a BigDecimal whose value is (this × multiplicand), with rounding according to the context settings. BigDecimal BigDecimal is a standard J2SE class in the java.math package specifically designed for representing arbitrary precision decimal (base 10) numbers. * {@link BigDecimal}. Following is the declaration for java.math.BigDecimal.multiply() method. BigDecimal class contains Arithmetic operations, rounding, comparison, scaling. */, /**
* associated with that currency. println ( "Converted String currency to bigDecimalCurrency: " + bigDecimalCurrency ) ; … */, /**
* Returns
* to the expected number of decimal places for that currency.
* sensitive to scale. * @param amount is required, can be positive or negative. You are encouraged to use database summary functions
*/, /**
*/, /**
public Money plus (java.math.BigDecimal amountToAdd, java.math.RoundingMode roundingMode) Returns a copy of this monetary value with the amount added. * validating the final state of the de-serialized object. *
For example, adding together Euros and Dollars does not make any sense. * @serial
* as this Money. */, /**
Hello Friends, In my previous post, I shared code that was for converting number to Indian currency in PHP and today I am going to share how to convert number to Indian currency in Java.With some little changes same previous code logic can be used to develop code to convert number to indian currency in java. * end users. *
* scale by {@link java.math.BigDecimal}. */, /** * It doesn't apply to addition and subtraction. * The money amount. This is not the modulo operation i.e the result can be negative. *
* {@link #lt} and {@link #gt}. * @param roundingStyle is required, must match a rounding style used by
5.25% of Amount One: 26.98
2. *
* Always treat de-serialization as a full-blown constructor, by
*
The scale can be negative. * Takes two numeric arguments, representing monetary values, in a form
Typically, it will be called once (and only once) upon startup. Precision of Float is 6–7 digits , precision of double is 15–16 digits and BigDecimal scale as per Java 8 docs (source : here): Immutable, arbitrary-precision signed decimal numbers . * The rounding style to be used. Answer: Always uses java.math.BigDecimal to represent the monetary values. Money is basically composed of two fundamental entities Amount and Currency.The BigDecimal is ideal data type provided in Java language for representing.. */, /**
* double for those methods, since those types don't interact well with
*/, /**
* Number of decimals to retain. *
* always be suitable for display to an end user. *Prints money with two decimal points. //with each element of the sum, we're just creating a BigDecimal. */, /** That is,
*
(In a servlet environment, each app has its own classloader. Amount One: 513.89
*
Using the above examples :
* Sets scale to 2 and returns a Money object. Currencies must match. "3", than Oracle JDBC driver return "3", but PostgreSQL JDBC driver return "3.00". *
The {@link #init(Currency, RoundingMode)} method must be called at least
*
Setting these defaults allow you to use the more terse constructors of this class,
*
* BigDecimal. The intent is that such names will improve the
*
When doing business calculations in Java, especially for currencies, you would preferably use the java.math.BigDecimal class to avoid the problems related to floating-point arithmetic, which you might experience if you’re using one of the two primitive types: float or double (or one of their boxed type counterparts). *
The return value uses the runtime's default locale, and will not
Translates a double into a BigDecimal which is the exact decimal representation of the double's binary floating-point value.The scale of the returned BigDecimal is the smallest value such that (10 scale × val) is an integer. See Sun docs
If you want something sensible, use displayAsDollarsCorrectly instead. Its goal is to add a flexible and extensible API to the Java ecosystem and make working with monetary amounts simpler and safer.
* Will return true if x is a Money object and x's private BigDecimal delegate *
a * b : scale(a) + scale(b)
* returns Money . * Divide this Money by an integral divisor. Description. * BigDecimals are the same, while the current class's .equals does not require that. Instead * Note that the String constructor is preferred for
* See {@link BigDecimal}. * cost = amount.times(price);
Oliver H. Mar 1, 2019 ... We choose the humble BigDecimal because it does the job, is familiar to your fellow developers. *
*/, /** Return the currency passed to the constructor, or the default currency. Like {@link BigDecimal},
Also referred to as "scale". MoneyCalculation 513.89 612.25
Note that call this class's *
The scale of the returned Money is equal to the scale of
For example, in base-10, the number 1/2 has a terminating expansion (0.5) while the number 1/3 does not (0.333…). * The scale of the returned Money is equal to the scale of 'this'
* negative sign. * involving more than one Money object will throw a
Unfortunately, sometimes we have to divide such values or multiply them by decimal point values (for example, calculate how much you have earned on your savings account). * Monetary amounts can be stored in the database in various ways. *
* which are much more convenient. * 10.minus(1.23) => 8.77
* 10.eq(10.00) => true
It doesn't take float or
* the nearest cent, otherwise we round down. *
* Multiply this Money by an integral factor. *Round the return value before turning it into a Money object by passing it into the Money constructor. BigDecimal bigDecimalCurrency = new BigDecimal (currency); System . int intValue() Returns the value of this BigDecimal as an […] * factor or divisor is a non-integer. *
Return true only if 'this' amount is less than or equal to
Re: Use of BigDecimal and the storing of Currency values Jaco Verheul-Oracle Jun 21, 2007 9:31 AM ( in response to 575942 ) * @serial
*
* 'this' Money. */, /**
* Full constructor. Example of using BigDecimal to perform monetary calculations: >java -cp . This page will walk through java BigDecimal tutorial with example. *
* Never null. * -$0.03). If I store to "BigDecimal column" number without decimal, e.g. Currencies must match. * Currencies must match. * Currencies must match. * operation is calculated from the scales of the two input numbers :
CalculateThj.java - package com.audaxis.compiere.re4a.process import import import import import import java.math.BigDecimal java.sql.PreparedStatement * For example, these operations are valid (using an ad hoc
*
Operations can be performed on items having different scale. *
The recommended rounding style is {@link RoundingMode#HALF_EVEN}, also called
* The default rounding style to be used if no currency is passed to the constructor. *
Return true only if 'this' amount is less than
*/, // Currency.getInstance("USD").getDefaultFractionDigits(), /**
*/, /** */, /**
The output shows a difference between them. But there is one problem with these primitive types float and double that these types should never be used for precise value, such as currency. Many a times its required to format currency in java, especially an amount into a currency format based on user’s locale in case the application is being used globally. This means that while we can still use longfor storing cents, we need to multiply/divide using decimal p… * MismatchedCurrencyException if the currencies don't match. * @param currencyIfEmpty is used only when moneys is empty; that way, this
Here is the BigDecimal … * Greater than. If you search for “BigDecimal” in that code, you’ll see that I convert from a Scala BigDecimal type to a Java BigDecimal in the insert method, using the bigDecimal method. Table of Contents [ hide] 1 Java BigDecimal Representing money: use BigDecimal, int, or long (BigDecimal is the recommended default) the int and long forms represent pennies (or the equivalent, of course) BigDecimal is a little more inconvenient to use, but has built-in rounding modes *
Return true only if the amounts are equal. *
The scale of the returned Money is equal to the scale of
* If the collection is empty, then a zero value is returned. * 10.gt(1.23) => true
It has methods for most common arithmetic operations and its rounding behaviour can be precisely controlled. Example :
*
Return true only if 'this' amount is
* Maintainers must change this value if and only if the new version
BigDecimal is preferred while dealing with high-precision arithmetic or situations that require more granular control over rounding off calculations. The following code shows how to money type based on BigDecimal. *
Note that scale and rounding are two separate issues. * NumberScale
*
if (amount.lt(hundred)) {
* example of dollars. * of this class is not compatible with old versions. Why BigDecimal is needed. */, /**
Hi All, We decide add support PostgreSQL database (now supporting only Oracle database) to our product. *
* Less than or equal to. *
*/, /**
The java.math.BigDecimal.multiply(BigDecimal multiplicand, MathContext mc) returns a BigDecimal whose value is (this × multiplicand), with rounding according to the context settings. BigDecimal BigDecimal is a standard J2SE class in the java.math package specifically designed for representing arbitrary precision decimal (base 10) numbers. * {@link BigDecimal}. Following is the declaration for java.math.BigDecimal.multiply() method. BigDecimal class contains Arithmetic operations, rounding, comparison, scaling. */, /**
* associated with that currency. println ( "Converted String currency to bigDecimalCurrency: " + bigDecimalCurrency ) ; … */, /**
* Returns
* to the expected number of decimal places for that currency.
* sensitive to scale. * @param amount is required, can be positive or negative. You are encouraged to use database summary functions
*/, /**
*/, /**
public Money plus (java.math.BigDecimal amountToAdd, java.math.RoundingMode roundingMode) Returns a copy of this monetary value with the amount added. * validating the final state of the de-serialized object. *
For example, adding together Euros and Dollars does not make any sense. * @serial
* as this Money. */, /**
Hello Friends, In my previous post, I shared code that was for converting number to Indian currency in PHP and today I am going to share how to convert number to Indian currency in Java.With some little changes same previous code logic can be used to develop code to convert number to indian currency in java. * end users. *
* scale by {@link java.math.BigDecimal}. */, /** * It doesn't apply to addition and subtraction. * The money amount. This is not the modulo operation i.e the result can be negative. *
* {@link #lt} and {@link #gt}. * @param roundingStyle is required, must match a rounding style used by
5.25% of Amount One: 26.98
2. *
* Always treat de-serialization as a full-blown constructor, by
*
The scale can be negative. * Takes two numeric arguments, representing monetary values, in a form
Typically, it will be called once (and only once) upon startup. Precision of Float is 6–7 digits , precision of double is 15–16 digits and BigDecimal scale as per Java 8 docs (source : here): Immutable, arbitrary-precision signed decimal numbers . * The rounding style to be used. Answer: Always uses java.math.BigDecimal to represent the monetary values. Money is basically composed of two fundamental entities Amount and Currency.The BigDecimal is ideal data type provided in Java language for representing.. */, /**
* double for those methods, since those types don't interact well with
*/, /**
* Number of decimals to retain. *
* always be suitable for display to an end user. *Prints money with two decimal points. //with each element of the sum, we're just creating a BigDecimal. */, /** That is,
*
(In a servlet environment, each app has its own classloader. Amount One: 513.89
*
Using the above examples :
* Sets scale to 2 and returns a Money object. Currencies must match. "3", than Oracle JDBC driver return "3", but PostgreSQL JDBC driver return "3.00". *
The {@link #init(Currency, RoundingMode)} method must be called at least
*
Setting these defaults allow you to use the more terse constructors of this class,
*
* BigDecimal. The intent is that such names will improve the
*
When doing business calculations in Java, especially for currencies, you would preferably use the java.math.BigDecimal class to avoid the problems related to floating-point arithmetic, which you might experience if you’re using one of the two primitive types: float or double (or one of their boxed type counterparts). *
The return value uses the runtime's default locale, and will not
Translates a double into a BigDecimal which is the exact decimal representation of the double's binary floating-point value.The scale of the returned BigDecimal is the smallest value such that (10 scale × val) is an integer. See Sun docs
If you want something sensible, use displayAsDollarsCorrectly instead. Its goal is to add a flexible and extensible API to the Java ecosystem and make working with monetary amounts simpler and safer.
* Will return true if x is a Money object and x's private BigDecimal delegate *
a * b : scale(a) + scale(b)
* returns Money . * Divide this Money by an integral divisor. Description. * BigDecimals are the same, while the current class's .equals does not require that. Instead * Note that the String constructor is preferred for
* See {@link BigDecimal}. * cost = amount.times(price);
Oliver H. Mar 1, 2019 ... We choose the humble BigDecimal because it does the job, is familiar to your fellow developers. *
*/, /** Return the currency passed to the constructor, or the default currency. Like {@link BigDecimal},
Also referred to as "scale". MoneyCalculation 513.89 612.25
Note that call this class's *
The scale of the returned Money is equal to the scale of
For example, in base-10, the number 1/2 has a terminating expansion (0.5) while the number 1/3 does not (0.333…). * The scale of the returned Money is equal to the scale of 'this'
* negative sign. * involving more than one Money object will throw a
Unfortunately, sometimes we have to divide such values or multiply them by decimal point values (for example, calculate how much you have earned on your savings account). * Monetary amounts can be stored in the database in various ways. *
* which are much more convenient. * 10.minus(1.23) => 8.77
* 10.eq(10.00) => true
It doesn't take float or
* the nearest cent, otherwise we round down. *
* Multiply this Money by an integral factor. *Round the return value before turning it into a Money object by passing it into the Money constructor. BigDecimal bigDecimalCurrency = new BigDecimal (currency); System . int intValue() Returns the value of this BigDecimal as an […] * factor or divisor is a non-integer. *
Return true only if 'this' amount is less than or equal to
Re: Use of BigDecimal and the storing of Currency values Jaco Verheul-Oracle Jun 21, 2007 9:31 AM ( in response to 575942 ) * @serial
*
* 'this' Money. */, /**
* Full constructor. Example of using BigDecimal to perform monetary calculations: >java -cp . This page will walk through java BigDecimal tutorial with example. *
* Never null. * -$0.03). If I store to "BigDecimal column" number without decimal, e.g. Currencies must match. * Currencies must match. * Currencies must match. * operation is calculated from the scales of the two input numbers :
CalculateThj.java - package com.audaxis.compiere.re4a.process import import import import import import java.math.BigDecimal java.sql.PreparedStatement * For example, these operations are valid (using an ad hoc
*
Operations can be performed on items having different scale. *
The recommended rounding style is {@link RoundingMode#HALF_EVEN}, also called
* The default rounding style to be used if no currency is passed to the constructor. *
*
* Set default values for currency and rounding style. The remainder is given by this.subtract(this.divideToIntegralValue(divisor).multiply(divisor)). * method can return a zero amount in the desired currency. * This is the simplest policy, and likely conforms to the expectations of most
*
* many operations return new Money objects. out . * Note in particular how the default scale of the result of an
* servlet container. *
JSR 354 – “Currency and Money” addresses the standardization of currencies and monetary amounts in Java. *
Multiplication, Division and Extra Decimal Places
*
Decimal Places and Scale
* has the same value as our private BigDecimal delegate, regardless of scale. This class's constructors
1. * In fact, this .equals behaves like BigDecimal's .compareTo(). ", /** * This method is not synonymous with the equals method. Average : 563.07
* @param amount is required, can be positive or negative. Java BigDecimal class is used to deal with financial data. * Multiply this Money by an non-integral factor (having a decimal point). long datatype is rather suitable for this case. *might have a sparsely populated array it wants summed up. BigDecimal is for arbitrary-precision fixed-point numbers; you can use these for accurate monetary calculations. The number 1,000.00 is the number one thousand. It performs the operations of java.lang.Math class and it is used to fetch precision, round, unit in the last place (ULP), engineering notation values etc. Declaration. * The {@link #eq(Money)} method, on the other hand, is not
Below Java code explains the concept of accuracy in calculation. This makes it ideal for representing currency or any precise numbers. * 123 (thousands)-3
*
*
Return true only if 'this' amount is less than
*/, // Currency.getInstance("USD").getDefaultFractionDigits(), /**
*/, /** */, /**
The output shows a difference between them. But there is one problem with these primitive types float and double that these types should never be used for precise value, such as currency. Many a times its required to format currency in java, especially an amount into a currency format based on user’s locale in case the application is being used globally. This means that while we can still use longfor storing cents, we need to multiply/divide using decimal p… * MismatchedCurrencyException if the currencies don't match. * @param currencyIfEmpty is used only when moneys is empty; that way, this
Here is the BigDecimal … * Greater than. If you search for “BigDecimal” in that code, you’ll see that I convert from a Scala BigDecimal type to a Java BigDecimal in the insert method, using the bigDecimal method. Table of Contents [ hide] 1 Java BigDecimal Representing money: use BigDecimal, int, or long (BigDecimal is the recommended default) the int and long forms represent pennies (or the equivalent, of course) BigDecimal is a little more inconvenient to use, but has built-in rounding modes *
Return true only if the amounts are equal. *
The scale of the returned Money is equal to the scale of
* If the collection is empty, then a zero value is returned. * 10.gt(1.23) => true
It has methods for most common arithmetic operations and its rounding behaviour can be precisely controlled. Example :
*
Return true only if 'this' amount is
* Maintainers must change this value if and only if the new version
BigDecimal is preferred while dealing with high-precision arithmetic or situations that require more granular control over rounding off calculations. The following code shows how to money type based on BigDecimal. *
Note that scale and rounding are two separate issues. * NumberScale
*
if (amount.lt(hundred)) {
* example of dollars. * of this class is not compatible with old versions. Why BigDecimal is needed. */, /**
Hi All, We decide add support PostgreSQL database (now supporting only Oracle database) to our product. *
* Less than or equal to. *
*/, /**
The java.math.BigDecimal.multiply(BigDecimal multiplicand, MathContext mc) returns a BigDecimal whose value is (this × multiplicand), with rounding according to the context settings. BigDecimal BigDecimal is a standard J2SE class in the java.math package specifically designed for representing arbitrary precision decimal (base 10) numbers. * {@link BigDecimal}. Following is the declaration for java.math.BigDecimal.multiply() method. BigDecimal class contains Arithmetic operations, rounding, comparison, scaling. */, /**
* associated with that currency. println ( "Converted String currency to bigDecimalCurrency: " + bigDecimalCurrency ) ; … */, /**
* Returns
* to the expected number of decimal places for that currency.
* sensitive to scale. * @param amount is required, can be positive or negative. You are encouraged to use database summary functions
*/, /**
*/, /**
public Money plus (java.math.BigDecimal amountToAdd, java.math.RoundingMode roundingMode) Returns a copy of this monetary value with the amount added. * validating the final state of the de-serialized object. *
For example, adding together Euros and Dollars does not make any sense. * @serial
* as this Money. */, /**
Hello Friends, In my previous post, I shared code that was for converting number to Indian currency in PHP and today I am going to share how to convert number to Indian currency in Java.With some little changes same previous code logic can be used to develop code to convert number to indian currency in java. * end users. *
* scale by {@link java.math.BigDecimal}. */, /** * It doesn't apply to addition and subtraction. * The money amount. This is not the modulo operation i.e the result can be negative. *
* {@link #lt} and {@link #gt}. * @param roundingStyle is required, must match a rounding style used by
5.25% of Amount One: 26.98
2. *
* Always treat de-serialization as a full-blown constructor, by
*
The scale can be negative. * Takes two numeric arguments, representing monetary values, in a form
Typically, it will be called once (and only once) upon startup. Precision of Float is 6–7 digits , precision of double is 15–16 digits and BigDecimal scale as per Java 8 docs (source : here): Immutable, arbitrary-precision signed decimal numbers . * The rounding style to be used. Answer: Always uses java.math.BigDecimal to represent the monetary values. Money is basically composed of two fundamental entities Amount and Currency.The BigDecimal is ideal data type provided in Java language for representing.. */, /**
* double for those methods, since those types don't interact well with
*/, /**
* Number of decimals to retain. *
* always be suitable for display to an end user. *Prints money with two decimal points. //with each element of the sum, we're just creating a BigDecimal. */, /** That is,
*
(In a servlet environment, each app has its own classloader. Amount One: 513.89
*
Using the above examples :
* Sets scale to 2 and returns a Money object. Currencies must match. "3", than Oracle JDBC driver return "3", but PostgreSQL JDBC driver return "3.00". *
The {@link #init(Currency, RoundingMode)} method must be called at least
*
Setting these defaults allow you to use the more terse constructors of this class,
*
* BigDecimal. The intent is that such names will improve the
*
When doing business calculations in Java, especially for currencies, you would preferably use the java.math.BigDecimal class to avoid the problems related to floating-point arithmetic, which you might experience if you’re using one of the two primitive types: float or double (or one of their boxed type counterparts). *
The return value uses the runtime's default locale, and will not
Translates a double into a BigDecimal which is the exact decimal representation of the double's binary floating-point value.The scale of the returned BigDecimal is the smallest value such that (10 scale × val) is an integer. See Sun docs
If you want something sensible, use displayAsDollarsCorrectly instead. Its goal is to add a flexible and extensible API to the Java ecosystem and make working with monetary amounts simpler and safer.
* Will return true if x is a Money object and x's private BigDecimal delegate *
a * b : scale(a) + scale(b)
* returns Money . * Divide this Money by an integral divisor. Description. * BigDecimals are the same, while the current class's .equals does not require that. Instead * Note that the String constructor is preferred for
* See {@link BigDecimal}. * cost = amount.times(price);
Oliver H. Mar 1, 2019 ... We choose the humble BigDecimal because it does the job, is familiar to your fellow developers. *
*/, /** Return the currency passed to the constructor, or the default currency. Like {@link BigDecimal},
Also referred to as "scale". MoneyCalculation 513.89 612.25
Note that call this class's *
The scale of the returned Money is equal to the scale of
For example, in base-10, the number 1/2 has a terminating expansion (0.5) while the number 1/3 does not (0.333…). * The scale of the returned Money is equal to the scale of 'this'
* negative sign. * involving more than one Money object will throw a
Unfortunately, sometimes we have to divide such values or multiply them by decimal point values (for example, calculate how much you have earned on your savings account). * Monetary amounts can be stored in the database in various ways. *
* which are much more convenient. * 10.minus(1.23) => 8.77
* 10.eq(10.00) => true
It doesn't take float or
* the nearest cent, otherwise we round down. *
* Multiply this Money by an integral factor. *Round the return value before turning it into a Money object by passing it into the Money constructor. BigDecimal bigDecimalCurrency = new BigDecimal (currency); System . int intValue() Returns the value of this BigDecimal as an […] * factor or divisor is a non-integer. *
Return true only if 'this' amount is less than or equal to
Re: Use of BigDecimal and the storing of Currency values Jaco Verheul-Oracle Jun 21, 2007 9:31 AM ( in response to 575942 ) * @serial
*
* 'this' Money. */, /**
* Full constructor. Example of using BigDecimal to perform monetary calculations: >java -cp . This page will walk through java BigDecimal tutorial with example. *
* Never null. * -$0.03). If I store to "BigDecimal column" number without decimal, e.g. Currencies must match. * Currencies must match. * Currencies must match. * operation is calculated from the scales of the two input numbers :
CalculateThj.java - package com.audaxis.compiere.re4a.process import import import import import import java.math.BigDecimal java.sql.PreparedStatement * For example, these operations are valid (using an ad hoc
*
Operations can be performed on items having different scale. *
The recommended rounding style is {@link RoundingMode#HALF_EVEN}, also called
* The default rounding style to be used if no currency is passed to the constructor. *